Simple Series Circuits

Let’s start with a series circuit consisting of three resistors and a single battery: The first principle to understand about series circuits is that the amount of current is the same through any component in the circuit. This is because there is only one path for electrons to flow in a series circuit, and because free electrons flow through conductors like marbles in a tube, the rate of flow (marble speed) at any point in the circuit (tube) at any specific point in time must be equal. From the way that the 9 volt battery is arranged, we can tell […]

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Capacitors

A capacitor is a two-terminal, electrical component. Along with resistors and inductors, they are one of the most fundamental passive components we use. You would have to look very hard to find a circuit which didn’t have a capacitor in it. What makes capacitors special is their ability to store energy; they’re like a fully charged electric battery. Caps, as we usually refer to them, have all sorts of critical applications in circuits. Common applications include local energy storage, voltage spike suppression, and complex signal filtering. Circuit Symbols There are two common ways to draw a capacitor in a schematic. […]

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P&ID Identification and Reference Designation

  Letter Column 1 (Measured value) Column 2(Modifier) Column 3 (Readout/passive function) Column 4 (Output/active function) Column 5 (Function modifier) A Analysis Alarm B Burner, combustion User choice User choice User choice C User’s choice (usually conductivity) Control Close D User’s choice (usually density) Difference Deviation E Voltage Sensor F Flow rate Ratio G User’s choice (usually gaging/gauging) Gas Glass/gauge/viewing H Hand High I Current Indicate J Power Scan K Time, time schedule Time rate of change Control station L Level Light Low M User’s choice Middle / intermediate N User’s choice (usually torque) User choice User choice User choice […]

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P&ID : Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams or simply P&IDs are the schematics used in the field of instrumentation and process control. The P&ID is used by technicians, engineers, and operators to immediately identify an instrument and understand the process and how the instruments are inter connected. The P&ID will use symbols and circles to represent each instrument and how they are inter-connected in the process. Example: “Tag  numbers” composed of letters and numbers are placed within or near the instrument to identify the type and function of the device. The first letter is used to designate the measured variable. The succeeding letter(s) are […]

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