Kinds Of Operational Amplifiers

There are various types of electrical and electronic components which are typically used to design electronics projects and circuits. These components include, operational amplifiers, integrated circuits, microcontrollers, microprocessors, digital logic gates, analog to digital or digital to analog converters, and so on. Let us consider operational amplifier, which can be defined as an electronic device which takes differential input and thereby generates a single ended output and is termed as a DC coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier. In this article, let us discuss about the op amp circuits and basics. Op Amp Circuit The operational amplifier can be used to […]

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5/2 way directional valve in a diagram

Example of using a 5/2 way directional valve as shown in a diagram Drawing below shows a double solenoid operated 5/2 way directional valve connected to a double acting cylinder/ with to proximity switch. the system is in idle condition.       When the start button is pressed momentarily. the cycle begins at logic 2 triggering EXT_B_SV solenoid which extends the cylinder. As soon as the proximity switch B_OUT is reached. Logic 3 comes in triggering RET_B_SV solenoid to retract the cylinder to its normal position.   When the push button is permanently pressed. The logic will flow continuously extending and retracting […]

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How does a tilt level switch work?

The mechanical tilt level switch for bulk solids level measurement is the most simple, reliable, and economical solids level measurement technology on the market. Mechanical tilt level switches are ideal for applications such as grains, cereals, animal food, powders, and diverse bulk solids (pellets, stones, minerals, sawdust, etc.). For this reason, ATMI has developed its range of SOLIBA tilt level switches designed to stop the filling of diverse storage zones, such as: grain silos, port silos, airport silos, storage bins, bulk storage, etc. How does the SOLIBA tilt level switch work? The SOLIBA needs to be suspended vertically at the […]

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Limit Switch Application

What is a limit switch and how is it used in a control process? Limit Switches are simply switches that are commonly used to detect the presence of a moving object when the object reaches a desired location. When the limit switch is triggered, it will operate the contacts linked to it and will close or open an electrical connection. Limit switches are either normally open (N.O.) or normally closed (N.C.) contacts. One type of limit switch is a mechanical limit switch. It is used to detect the presence of an object when physical contact is made between the object and the switch. […]

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Simple Series Circuits

Let’s start with a series circuit consisting of three resistors and a single battery: The first principle to understand about series circuits is that the amount of current is the same through any component in the circuit. This is because there is only one path for electrons to flow in a series circuit, and because free electrons flow through conductors like marbles in a tube, the rate of flow (marble speed) at any point in the circuit (tube) at any specific point in time must be equal. From the way that the 9 volt battery is arranged, we can tell […]

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Capacitors

A capacitor is a two-terminal, electrical component. Along with resistors and inductors, they are one of the most fundamental passive components we use. You would have to look very hard to find a circuit which didn’t have a capacitor in it. What makes capacitors special is their ability to store energy; they’re like a fully charged electric battery. Caps, as we usually refer to them, have all sorts of critical applications in circuits. Common applications include local energy storage, voltage spike suppression, and complex signal filtering. Circuit Symbols There are two common ways to draw a capacitor in a schematic. […]

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Testing a PNP or NPN sensor

How to Test Whether a Sensor has a PNP or NPN Type Output Using a Multi meter? If you are replacing a 3 wire sensor which operates on DC voltage, it is important to know whether the sensor’s output is a PNP or NPN type. Often this information is printed on the sensor itself, but it is not uncommon for it to be scratched off over a long period of time. Set the multi meter to DC voltage. This is indicated by either the letters “VDC” or “DCV” or by a symbol which looks like 3 dashed lines over a […]

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What is Instrumentation?

The first question that popped up in my mind and raised to our professor during the first day of my instrumentation classes was that what is Instrumentation and how is it being used in process control?  “Simple, these are instruments that we  use in order to measure, satisfy and complete a given sequence that will control the process required ” my professor replied. then I taught, Duh! Instrumentation is not that complicated and might be a boring subject but then when he goes along introducing the different kinds of instruments that are involve in the process, then I started to get interested […]

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The Process Control Loop

Hi, its me again and I am about to tackle a very important framework in the field of Instrumentation. Assuming you already have read my post regarding what a process control is and what are the parameters involved in this process. We are now going to learn how these parameters are meet in a process control loop. A Process control loop is a system that is designed to maintain a process on its desired set point. Each step in the loop works together to manage the system. Once the set point is reached, the process control loop operates in four steps. First, it will measure the current condition […]

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How does a 5/2 way directional valve work?

5/2 way directional valve working principle.      This instrument is not new to me. Since We started our pneumatic class on my third year in college, I already had the pleasure to meet this instrument. We even had to use this almost everyday, during our laboratory exercises. It’s always present in all our pneumatic and hydraulic trainers. How does this stuff really work?     A valve is a device that regulates the flow of fluid (gases, liquids,fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening and closing or partially obstructing passage ways.   A 5/2 way directional valve from the name […]

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