Strain Gauge Transducers

Strain gauges are used in many instruments that produce mechanical strain because of the affect being measured. In their own right, they are used to measure the strain in a structure being stretched or compressed. The strain gauge element is a very thin wire that is formed into the shape shown. This produces a long wire all in one direction but on a small surface area. The element is often formed by etching a thin foil on a plastic backing. The completed element is then glued to the surface of the material or component that will be strained. The axis […]

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Types of Level Guages

Level gauges measure the depth or level of liquids and powder in tanks. They use a variety of principles and produce outputs in electrical and pneumatic forms. The type to use depends on the substance in the tank. Here are a few The ultrasonic system reflects sound waves from the surface and determines the depth from the time taken to receive the reflected sound. The electronic version uses a variety of electrical affects including conduction of the fluid and capacitance. The pneumatic version bubbles air through the liquid and the pressure of the air is related to the depth. A […]

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Types of Position Sensors

Position sensors are essential elements in the control of actuators. The position of both linear and rotary actuators is needed in robotic type mechanisms. There are three principle types. · Resistive · Optical · Inductive Resistive type A potentiometer is a variable electrical resistance. A length of resistance material has a voltage applied over its ends. A slider moves along it (either linear or rotary) and picks off the voltage at its position or angle. The tracks may be made from carbon , resistance wire or piezo resistive material. The latter is the best because it gives a good analogue […]

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Types of Force Sensors

The main types of force sensors are · Mechanical types. · Hydraulic types. · Electrical strain gauge types. Mechanical type Mechanical types are usually complete measuring systems involving some form of spring such as in a simple spring balance or bathroom scale. It is a basic mechanical principle that the deflection of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force so if the movement is shown on a scale, the scale represents force. Hydraulic type Hydraulic types are often referred to as hydraulic load cells. The cell is a capsule filled with liquid. When the capsule is squeezed, the […]

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Types of Flow Transducers

There are many hundreds of types of [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary]flow[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] meters depending on the make and application. They may be classified roughly as follows.     Positive Displacement Type Inferential Type Variable Type Differential Pressure Type Positive Displacement Type These types have a mechanical element that makes the shaft of the meter rotate once for an exact known quantity of fluid. The quantity of fluid hence depends on the number of revolutions of the meter shaft and the flow rate depends upon the speed of rotation. Both the revolutions and speed may be measured with mechanical or electronic devices. Some of the most common listed below. […]

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