Process Control Communucation Protocols

How do instruments and controllers communicate in a process control? Has it ever came in your mind how instruments and controllers communicate? We know for a fact that communication may come wired or wireless but with the wast variety of process instruments nowadays how do this instruments work when connected to controllers of a different make. Communication protocols is what we call the digital message formats and rules required to exchange messages in or between computers and instruments. This is required in process automation.   The following are the different types of communication protocols, its uses and its makers in the field of […]

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Typical setup for a 3/4 way 2 position way valve

How to setup a 3/4 way 2 position way valve?   1. To actuate one single-acting cylinder. Either oil port “A” or “B” must be plugged on valve. With port “B” plugged, solenoid is energized to position “A,” oil port “A” becomes pressurized. When solenoid is energized to position “B,” oil port “A” becomes the return port. 2. To actuate two single-acting cylinder. A pressure line from one bank can be connected to oil port “A” and the other to oil port “B” on the valve. Sequence: When energized to position “A,” oil port “A” becomes pressurized and clamps the fixture […]

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Direct Operated 3/2 Way Solenoid Valves

A 3/2 way solenoid valve has three ports and two switching states. In each switching state, two of the three ports are connected. By activating the solenoid, the valve switches state and a different connection between the valve ports is established.   3/2 Way Direct Acting solenoid valves utilizes the armature movement as the direct means to the Open / Close the inlet or exhaust ports of the solenoid valve. 3/2 way normally closed solenoid valve Inlet pressure is typically through P1, so when the solenoid valve de-energized the inlet port P1 is closed i.e. the armature is down and sealing […]

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Temperature Measurement

Introduction Temperature measurement is one of the significant functions in the field of measurement, which has been most frequently conducted in meteorological observation, environmental research, laboratories, and various other production processes. Temperature measurement is fundamental and important in terms of manufacturing products in a specified condition and maintaining consistent quality in the industry. Therefore, this describes the measurement principles of the thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in temperature sensors most often used in temperature measurements carried out by the field of industry.   1. What are Thermocouples? Thermocouples are temperature sensors. They operate under the principle that the junction […]

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RTD vs Thermocouple

Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) An RTD sensing element consists of a wire coil or deposited film of pure metal. The element’s resistance increases with temperature in a known and repeatable manner. RTDs exhibit excellent accuracy over a wide temperature range and represent the fastest growing segment among industrial temperature sensors. Their advantages include: Temperature range: Minco models cover temperatures from ¬260 to 850°C (¬436 to 1582°F). Repeatability and stability: The platinum resistance thermometer is the primary interpolation instrument used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology from ¬260 to 962°C. Ordinary industrial RTDs typically drift less than 0.1°C/year. Sensitivity: […]

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What is a Final Control Element?

What is a Final Control Element? Final control element is a device controlled by a controller to change the operating conditions of a process. Final control elements requires energy to operate against the process. This energy is usually in the form of air pressure, hydraulic pressure or electricity. There are a great variety of final control elements and accessories that make each one have its own characteristics to adapt to a particular process dynamic What are the common final control elements? The most common final element is a control valve. Once a control valve is triggered it changes the process […]

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5/2 way directional valve in a diagram

Example of using a 5/2 way directional valve as shown in a diagram Drawing below shows a double solenoid operated 5/2 way directional valve connected to a double acting cylinder/ with to proximity switch. the system is in idle condition.       When the start button is pressed momentarily. the cycle begins at logic 2 triggering EXT_B_SV solenoid which extends the cylinder. As soon as the proximity switch B_OUT is reached. Logic 3 comes in triggering RET_B_SV solenoid to retract the cylinder to its normal position.   When the push button is permanently pressed. The logic will flow continuously extending and retracting […]

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Microwave based flow detector

How does a Microwave based flow detector work? A microwave-based motion detector detects the Doppler shift of the flowing material. A complete flow detector consists of a transmitter and transducer. The transducer has a Gunn diode configured within a waveguide (horn) antenna and functions as both a microwave transmitter and receiver. The transmitter contains the measuring electronics and relay output. The Gunn diode emits a low power, continuous signal that is reflected from moving material in the process. It  monitors the movement of bulk materials and can be used to detect and indicate material blockages or feeder shutdowns.   If the reflecting […]

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How does a tilt level switch work?

The mechanical tilt level switch for bulk solids level measurement is the most simple, reliable, and economical solids level measurement technology on the market. Mechanical tilt level switches are ideal for applications such as grains, cereals, animal food, powders, and diverse bulk solids (pellets, stones, minerals, sawdust, etc.). For this reason, ATMI has developed its range of SOLIBA tilt level switches designed to stop the filling of diverse storage zones, such as: grain silos, port silos, airport silos, storage bins, bulk storage, etc. How does the SOLIBA tilt level switch work? The SOLIBA needs to be suspended vertically at the […]

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Limit Switch Application

What is a limit switch and how is it used in a control process? Limit Switches are simply switches that are commonly used to detect the presence of a moving object when the object reaches a desired location. When the limit switch is triggered, it will operate the contacts linked to it and will close or open an electrical connection. Limit switches are either normally open (N.O.) or normally closed (N.C.) contacts. One type of limit switch is a mechanical limit switch. It is used to detect the presence of an object when physical contact is made between the object and the switch. […]

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